>>/Contents 27 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> MUGISA A. DAVID . We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. endobj Center for Occupational Safety and Health (U) Ltd, is a leading consultancy firm in Uganda. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � eCollection 2019 Sep 15. <>stream National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. This study investigated the management of HCWs among health workers and associated factors in primary health care facilities in Kampala City, Uganda. 1 0 obj Elbejjani M, Abed Al Ahad M, Simon M, Ausserhofer D, Dumit N, Abu-Saad Huijer H, Dhaini SR. BMC Nurs. Among those that experienced nonbiological hazards (Table 2), the majority experienced stress (21.5%), physical, psychological, sexual, and/or verbal abuse (10.5%), and musculoskeletal injuries (10.5%). Severe health hazards and injuries can lead to workers missing work or being assigned to restricted or modified duty. Information about the open-access article 'Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda' in DOAJ. <>>>/Contents 30 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> Healthcare workers in this setting experience several hazards in their workplaces. endobj 2017 Jan;65(1):9-20. doi: 10.1177/2165079916662660. x�+�r NLM A structured questionnaire survey was conducted among 200 workers in five HCFs of Lahore, Pakistan. 25 0 obj Among the reported ergonomic haz Occupational health hazards among healthcare workers in Kampala, Uganda. endstream ResearchArticle Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda RawlanceNdejjo,1 GeofreyMusinguzi,1 XiaozhongYu,2 EstherBuregyeya,1 DavidMusoke,1 Jia … endstream OSH GOVERNABNCE SITUATION IN UGANDA . -, Triolo P. K. Occupational health hazards of hospital staff nurses. x�+�r  |  Specifically PPE supply gaps, job related pressures, and complacence in adhering to mitigation measures should be addressed. Predictors for experiencing hazards … %���� 30 0 obj ~�Q:��{4SP�m��˺O�j��[ܐJ\���?�ӌ]5�J��`Ds�aT? �26S073QI�r � ����I��t�n��I��7�%e�B���9Ȣy� �şX����iv8`KtK���R��S�����Tu7P�> ���#��L�,X��zu:t��>�wtF)�@���� AK���v���� ���+kGש�N���eQgS�$L�B��B�� Biomed Res Int. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, 2000) has mentioned that nursing is among those professions that have the highest risk of ergonomic hazards, especially musculoskeletal disorders.  |  endobj Journal of environmental and public health. Epub 2015 Jan 31. -, Moore R. M., Jr., Kaczmarek R. G. Occupational hazards to health care workers: diverse, ill-defined, and not fully appreciated. endobj Objective. Che Huei L, Ya-Wen L, Chiu Ming Y, Li Chen H, Jong Yi W, Ming Hung L. SAGE Open Med. 2015; 2015:1–16. To assess the occupational health hazards and associated risk factors among health care personnel working in public health facilities in Bhubaneswar. �W=���yT,;ݍ���2Y �����VŠu A�|�,��C� �\O u����qz?��իg��tt��JukU|�E�df��� �N!? <>stream We assessed the implementation of infection control in health facilities and determined predictors of hand washing among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Arua district, Uganda. Graeve CU, McGovern PM, Alexander B, Church T, Ryan A, Polovich M. Workplace Health Saf. Details: Occupational health and safety hazards experienced by health workers in major hospitals in Kampala, Uganda. <>>>/Contents 9 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> 2012 Jul-Sep;18(3):181-7. doi: 10.1179/1077352512Z.00000000027. �26S073QI�r � R24 TW009489/TW/FIC NIH HHS/United States, R24 TW009556/TW/FIC NIH HHS/United States, 1R24TW009489/TW/FIC NIH HHS/United States, 1R24TW009556/TW/FIC NIH HHS/United States, Goniewicz M., Włoszczak-Szubzda A., Niemcewicz M., Witt M., Marciniak-Niemcewicz A., Jarosz M. J. [13] Ndejjo R, Musinguzi G, Yu X, Buregyeya E, Musoke D, Wang JS, Halage AA, Whalen C, Bazeyo W, Williams P, Ssempebwa J. [14] Nsubuga FM, Jaakkola MS. Needle stick injuries among nurses in sub‐Saharan Africa. x�+�r 2020 Feb 25;17(5):1462. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051462. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda Table 6 Control measures to minimize exposure to occupational health and safety hazards among health workers in Kampala, Uganda. Occupational health hazards among healthcare workers in Kampala, Uganda. Ndejjo R, Musinguzi G, Yu X, et al. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine. Information about the open-access article 'Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda' in DOAJ. 2020 Jul 9;15(7):e0235470. �26S073QI�r � <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Type/XObject/Subtype/Form/BBox[0 0 600.05 792]/Matrix[1 0 0 1 0 0]/FormType 1>>stream Occupational hazards that include biological, chemical, physical, ergonomic, psychosocial, fire and explosion, and electrical hazards [ 3] threaten healthcare worker lives, safety, and well-being. NIH J Environ Public Health 2015;2015:913741. *zN�v�+���z�1��:h'��)�{�2e��c�J���Y��lW���[j&��)� ��W~��Bv�ۭ"^����~���K�걔���%�w��HݾP+�����Af_����t��f]� Ag. Work environment-related factors and nurses' health outcomes: a cross-sectional study in Lebanese hospitals. American Journal of Infection Control. �26S073QI�r � Occupational Tuberculosis Among Laboratory Workers in South Africa: Applying a Surveillance System to Strengthen Prevention and Control. 2008;10(3):159–165. endobj �26S073QI�r � endstream - <>stream endobj <>stream <>stream The present study is conducted to determine occupational health and safety hazards with special focus on ergonomic hazards among healthcare facility (HCF) workers. Occupational safety and health services in Uganda: constrained by limited resources ... 1948 to 1959, the Department of Health seconded a senior Medical Officer to the Department to look after the health of the workers. We conducted a cross-sectional health facility survey in 8 primary health care facilities in Kampala City from March to April 2017. J Environ Public Health. Ndejjo R, Musinguzi G, Yu X, et al. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda Table 2 Biological and nonbiological hazards experienced by health workers in major hospitals in Kampala, Uganda. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� �� We are an accredited training company specializing in Occupational Health and Safety Established in 2014 in Uganda-Kampala. 2012;19(3):523–527. TRIPARTITE WORKSHOP ON NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH GOVERNANCE IN UGANDA. We offer different services i.e Safety training, Auditing , fire Safety services, Environmental audits, Environmental Impact Assessment, Supply of Fire fighting equipment among … USA.gov. 1989;37(7):274–279. endobj [13] Ndejjo R, Musinguzi G, Yu X, Buregyeya E, Musoke D, Wang JS, Halage AA, Whalen C, Bazeyo W, Williams P, Ssempebwa J. endobj Occupational health hazards among healthcare workers in Kampala, Uganda. CONCLUSION: Healthcare workers in this setting experience several hazards in their workplaces. <>stream AAOHN Journal. Interventions should be instituted to mitigate the hazards. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. -, Salvage J., Rogers R., Cowell R. Nurses at risk. Occupational health hazards among healthcare workers in Kampala, Uganda. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � � Does the law in Uganda provide for the health and safety of employees? 22 0 obj DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals. Burnout among Healthcare Professionals in Ghana: A Critical Assessment. <>stream Cuts and wounds () Direct contact with contaminated specimens/biohazardous materials (.) To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. <>stream Introduction According World Health Organisation report 2006, health care facilities around the world employ over 59 million workers who are exposed to a complex variety of health and safety hazards during execution of their daily routine activities. <>>>/Contents 24 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Health care workers are exposed to different kinds of occupational hazards due to their day to day activities. Background: The World Health Organization recommends TB infection control (TBIC) in health care facilities. Municipal healthcare workers: work-related health hazards. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda Hospitals are considered high level facilities while health centres; II, III and IV are lower level and are classified as This often exposes health care workers in developing Occupational diseases. Details: Occupational health and safety hazards experienced by health workers in major hospitals in Kampala, Uganda. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda endstream 21 0 obj <>stream 12 0 obj [from abstract] 672 reads endobj 2015;2015. 2015;2015. Yes. 1990;18(5):316–327. 1. doi: 10.1016/0196-6553(90)90231-g. Associated factors include not wearing all necessary protective equipment, working overtime, experiencing work related pressures, and working in multiple facilities. 2020 Oct 8;19:95. doi: 10.1186/s12912-020-00485-z. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. Occupational health hazards among healthcare workers in Kampala, Uganda. }=���o�~��&��2��Q1Γ]:r���c%��mZ��d:OG����Y*P�d��r7���"52n�Կ^����g��'v��ȍ����lg;>�$�d��f}�(��ç�m�|��^v���b , �� eCollection 2020. 10.1155/2015/913741 [PMC … Injuries caused by sharp instruments among healthcare workers—international and Polish perspectives. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Aim: To assess the level of awareness of occupational health safety (OHS), to identify common occupational hazards and to determine the association between profession, year of experience and level of awareness of occupational health hazards among government Health Care Workers (HCWs) in Ondo city, Southwest Nigeria. 6 0 obj x��\�s#�qgY'۹���yT*��Jũ]��vf�ɗ�Ig=Y'�ɲK��#păҼ��c�_����]���T��#v13������wO�~��_�Ӌ��篟~�Kw�N_�y��q���4����2��iU�q]U2j�4����OG�8s>? Hospitals are considered high level facilities while health centres; II, III and IV are lower level and are classified as 2012; 33(9):917-23 (ISSN: 1559-6834) �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � endobj In Uganda, the health care system is organised into a four-tier system (i.e., hospitals, health centres of levels IV, III and II). Introduction: In Uganda work-related disease is a major problem. PRESENTED BY . 29 October 2012 We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. ( 7 ): e0235470 Kahama District, Tanzania day activities Research 19 ( 2017 ) health care in. Several hazards in their workplaces �nD $ � ` f� * y���F� @?! Cross-Sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala Uganda. Hazards due to their day to day activities randomly selected and 16 purposively selected informants... 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Conclusion: 2020 Mar 21;2020:1614968. doi: 10.1155/2020/1614968. endobj endobj J Environ Public Health. Occupational health and safety hazards experienced by health workers in major hospitals in Kampala, Uganda. ]MRA`�^��!���*?�E|�6v¹��"�nD$�`f�*y���F�@�?=��C���cC���z��B�ovi��� ��BNu�_Lw����PϥJ^���. Health Details: Objective. Infection control knowledge, attitudes, and practices among healthcare workers at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Healthcare workers provide patient care in environments that are considered to be one of the most unsafe occupational settings [ 1, 2 ]. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. x�+�r endstream endstream Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. P.O Box 7136, KAMPALA-UGANDA . :"[#�r� Journal of environmental and public health. Among these, 39.5% experienced biological hazards while 31.5% experienced nonbiological hazards. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � <>>>/Contents 27 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> MUGISA A. DAVID . We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. endobj Center for Occupational Safety and Health (U) Ltd, is a leading consultancy firm in Uganda. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � eCollection 2019 Sep 15. <>stream National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. This study investigated the management of HCWs among health workers and associated factors in primary health care facilities in Kampala City, Uganda. 1 0 obj Elbejjani M, Abed Al Ahad M, Simon M, Ausserhofer D, Dumit N, Abu-Saad Huijer H, Dhaini SR. BMC Nurs. Among those that experienced nonbiological hazards (Table 2), the majority experienced stress (21.5%), physical, psychological, sexual, and/or verbal abuse (10.5%), and musculoskeletal injuries (10.5%). Severe health hazards and injuries can lead to workers missing work or being assigned to restricted or modified duty. Information about the open-access article 'Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda' in DOAJ. <>>>/Contents 30 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> Healthcare workers in this setting experience several hazards in their workplaces. endobj 2017 Jan;65(1):9-20. doi: 10.1177/2165079916662660. x�+�r NLM A structured questionnaire survey was conducted among 200 workers in five HCFs of Lahore, Pakistan. 25 0 obj Among the reported ergonomic haz Occupational health hazards among healthcare workers in Kampala, Uganda. endstream ResearchArticle Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda RawlanceNdejjo,1 GeofreyMusinguzi,1 XiaozhongYu,2 EstherBuregyeya,1 DavidMusoke,1 Jia … endstream OSH GOVERNABNCE SITUATION IN UGANDA . -, Triolo P. K. Occupational health hazards of hospital staff nurses. x�+�r  |  Specifically PPE supply gaps, job related pressures, and complacence in adhering to mitigation measures should be addressed. Predictors for experiencing hazards … %���� 30 0 obj ~�Q:��{4SP�m��˺O�j��[ܐJ\���?�ӌ]5�J��`Ds�aT? �26S073QI�r � ����I��t�n��I��7�%e�B���9Ȣy� �şX����iv8`KtK���R��S�����Tu7P�> ���#��L�,X��zu:t��>�wtF)�@���� AK���v���� ���+kGש�N���eQgS�$L�B��B�� Biomed Res Int. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, 2000) has mentioned that nursing is among those professions that have the highest risk of ergonomic hazards, especially musculoskeletal disorders.  |  endobj Journal of environmental and public health. Epub 2015 Jan 31. -, Moore R. M., Jr., Kaczmarek R. G. Occupational hazards to health care workers: diverse, ill-defined, and not fully appreciated. endobj Objective. Che Huei L, Ya-Wen L, Chiu Ming Y, Li Chen H, Jong Yi W, Ming Hung L. SAGE Open Med. 2015; 2015:1–16. To assess the occupational health hazards and associated risk factors among health care personnel working in public health facilities in Bhubaneswar. �W=���yT,;ݍ���2Y �����VŠu A�|�,��C� �\O u����qz?��իg��tt��JukU|�E�df��� �N!? <>stream We assessed the implementation of infection control in health facilities and determined predictors of hand washing among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Arua district, Uganda. Graeve CU, McGovern PM, Alexander B, Church T, Ryan A, Polovich M. Workplace Health Saf. Details: Occupational health and safety hazards experienced by health workers in major hospitals in Kampala, Uganda. <>>>/Contents 9 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> 2012 Jul-Sep;18(3):181-7. doi: 10.1179/1077352512Z.00000000027. �26S073QI�r � R24 TW009489/TW/FIC NIH HHS/United States, R24 TW009556/TW/FIC NIH HHS/United States, 1R24TW009489/TW/FIC NIH HHS/United States, 1R24TW009556/TW/FIC NIH HHS/United States, Goniewicz M., Włoszczak-Szubzda A., Niemcewicz M., Witt M., Marciniak-Niemcewicz A., Jarosz M. J. [13] Ndejjo R, Musinguzi G, Yu X, Buregyeya E, Musoke D, Wang JS, Halage AA, Whalen C, Bazeyo W, Williams P, Ssempebwa J. [14] Nsubuga FM, Jaakkola MS. Needle stick injuries among nurses in sub‐Saharan Africa. x�+�r 2020 Feb 25;17(5):1462. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051462. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda Table 6 Control measures to minimize exposure to occupational health and safety hazards among health workers in Kampala, Uganda. Occupational health hazards among healthcare workers in Kampala, Uganda. Ndejjo R, Musinguzi G, Yu X, et al. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine. Information about the open-access article 'Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda' in DOAJ. 2020 Jul 9;15(7):e0235470. �26S073QI�r � <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Type/XObject/Subtype/Form/BBox[0 0 600.05 792]/Matrix[1 0 0 1 0 0]/FormType 1>>stream Occupational hazards that include biological, chemical, physical, ergonomic, psychosocial, fire and explosion, and electrical hazards [ 3] threaten healthcare worker lives, safety, and well-being. NIH J Environ Public Health 2015;2015:913741. *zN�v�+���z�1��:h'��)�{�2e��c�J���Y��lW���[j&��)� ��W~��Bv�ۭ"^����~���K�걔���%�w��HݾP+�����Af_����t��f]� Ag. Work environment-related factors and nurses' health outcomes: a cross-sectional study in Lebanese hospitals. American Journal of Infection Control. �26S073QI�r � Occupational Tuberculosis Among Laboratory Workers in South Africa: Applying a Surveillance System to Strengthen Prevention and Control. 2008;10(3):159–165. endobj �26S073QI�r � endstream - <>stream endobj <>stream <>stream The present study is conducted to determine occupational health and safety hazards with special focus on ergonomic hazards among healthcare facility (HCF) workers. Occupational safety and health services in Uganda: constrained by limited resources ... 1948 to 1959, the Department of Health seconded a senior Medical Officer to the Department to look after the health of the workers. We conducted a cross-sectional health facility survey in 8 primary health care facilities in Kampala City from March to April 2017. J Environ Public Health. Ndejjo R, Musinguzi G, Yu X, et al. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda Table 2 Biological and nonbiological hazards experienced by health workers in major hospitals in Kampala, Uganda. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� �� We are an accredited training company specializing in Occupational Health and Safety Established in 2014 in Uganda-Kampala. 2012;19(3):523–527. TRIPARTITE WORKSHOP ON NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH GOVERNANCE IN UGANDA. We offer different services i.e Safety training, Auditing , fire Safety services, Environmental audits, Environmental Impact Assessment, Supply of Fire fighting equipment among … USA.gov. 1989;37(7):274–279. endobj [13] Ndejjo R, Musinguzi G, Yu X, Buregyeya E, Musoke D, Wang JS, Halage AA, Whalen C, Bazeyo W, Williams P, Ssempebwa J. endobj Occupational health hazards among healthcare workers in Kampala, Uganda. CONCLUSION: Healthcare workers in this setting experience several hazards in their workplaces. <>stream AAOHN Journal. Interventions should be instituted to mitigate the hazards. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. -, Salvage J., Rogers R., Cowell R. Nurses at risk. Occupational health hazards among healthcare workers in Kampala, Uganda. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � � Does the law in Uganda provide for the health and safety of employees? 22 0 obj DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals. Burnout among Healthcare Professionals in Ghana: A Critical Assessment. <>stream Cuts and wounds () Direct contact with contaminated specimens/biohazardous materials (.) To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. <>stream Introduction According World Health Organisation report 2006, health care facilities around the world employ over 59 million workers who are exposed to a complex variety of health and safety hazards during execution of their daily routine activities. <>>>/Contents 24 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Health care workers are exposed to different kinds of occupational hazards due to their day to day activities. Background: The World Health Organization recommends TB infection control (TBIC) in health care facilities. Municipal healthcare workers: work-related health hazards. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda Hospitals are considered high level facilities while health centres; II, III and IV are lower level and are classified as This often exposes health care workers in developing Occupational diseases. Details: Occupational health and safety hazards experienced by health workers in major hospitals in Kampala, Uganda. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda endstream 21 0 obj <>stream 12 0 obj [from abstract] 672 reads endobj 2015;2015. 2015;2015. Yes. 1990;18(5):316–327. 1. doi: 10.1016/0196-6553(90)90231-g. Associated factors include not wearing all necessary protective equipment, working overtime, experiencing work related pressures, and working in multiple facilities. 2020 Oct 8;19:95. doi: 10.1186/s12912-020-00485-z. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. Occupational health hazards among healthcare workers in Kampala, Uganda. }=���o�~��&��2��Q1Γ]:r���c%��mZ��d:OG����Y*P�d��r7���"52n�Կ^����g��'v��ȍ����lg;>�$�d��f}�(��ç�m�|��^v���b , �� eCollection 2020. 10.1155/2015/913741 [PMC … Injuries caused by sharp instruments among healthcare workers—international and Polish perspectives. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Aim: To assess the level of awareness of occupational health safety (OHS), to identify common occupational hazards and to determine the association between profession, year of experience and level of awareness of occupational health hazards among government Health Care Workers (HCWs) in Ondo city, Southwest Nigeria. 6 0 obj x��\�s#�qgY'۹���yT*��Jũ]��vf�ɗ�Ig=Y'�ɲK��#păҼ��c�_����]���T��#v13������wO�~��_�Ӌ��篟~�Kw�N_�y��q���4����2��iU�q]U2j�4����OG�8s>? Hospitals are considered high level facilities while health centres; II, III and IV are lower level and are classified as 2012; 33(9):917-23 (ISSN: 1559-6834) �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � endobj In Uganda, the health care system is organised into a four-tier system (i.e., hospitals, health centres of levels IV, III and II). Introduction: In Uganda work-related disease is a major problem. PRESENTED BY . 29 October 2012 We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. ( 7 ): e0235470 Kahama District, Tanzania day activities Research 19 ( 2017 ) health care in. Several hazards in their workplaces �nD $ � ` f� * y���F� @?! Cross-Sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala Uganda. Hazards due to their day to day activities randomly selected and 16 purposively selected informants... 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